Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

Aventurine Gemstone

What is Aventurine?

Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect termed aventurescence.

The most common colour of aventurine is green, but it may also be orange, brown, yellow, blue, or gray. Chrome-bearing fuchsite (a variety of muscovite mica) is the classic inclusion, and gives a silvery green or blue sheen. Oranges and browns are attributed to hematite or goethite. Because aventurine is a rock, its physical properties vary: its specific gravity may lie between 2.64-2.69 and its hardness is somewhat lower than single-crystal quartz at around 6.5.

Aventurine feldspar or sunstone can be confused with orange and red aventurine quartzite, although the former is generally of a higher transparency. Aventurine is often banded and an overabundance of fuchsite may render it opaque, in which case it may be mistaken for malachite at first glance.

The name aventurine derives from the Italian "a ventura" meaning "by chance". This is an allusion to the lucky discovery of aventurine glass or goldstone at some point in the 18th century. Although it was known first, goldstone is now a common imitation of aventurine and sunstone. Goldstone is distinguished visually from the latter two minerals by its coarse flecks of copper, dispersed within the glass in an unnaturally uniform manner. It is usually a golden brown, but may also be found in blue or green.

The majority of green and blue-green aventurine originates in India (particularly in the vicinity of Mysore and Chennai) where it is employed by prolific artisans. Creamy white, gray and orange material is found in Chile, Spain and Russia. Most material is carved into beads and figurines with only the finer examples fashioned into cabochons, later being set into jewellery.

Aventurine healing Properties

Green Aventurine carries a strong connection to Earth and the devic kingdom, providing a better understanding and appreciation of nature and its soothing vibrations upon the mind and body. It is an excellent stone for gridding houses or gardens against geopathic stress. 
Wearing Aventurine also absorbs electromagnetic smog and guards against environmental pollution. Taped to a cell phone, it protects against its emanations. 
Green Aventurine energetically stimulates the physical growth of premature infants, young children and teenagers. It increases overall vitality and enhances the intellectual development of children struggling with schoolwork and destructive hyperactivity. It assists adults with written work, typing and computer skills, and is beneficial to all in overcoming clumsiness.
Aventurine may be made into an elixir to drink or used in ablutions by soaking a stone fragment in demineralized water overnight (we recommend the indirect method). It is highly beneficial for fighting eczema, rosacea, juvenile acne, and other skin problems. 
Aventurine is ideal for soothing quick-tempers or brutal temperaments, and can greatly diminish the effects of domestic strife between spouses. 
For those looking for love in their mature years, Green Aventurine may be used as a love crystal or added to a Heart Chakra layout as it encourages love later in life.

Physical properties of Aventurine

Chemical FormulaSiO2
ColourBlue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Gray
Hardness6.5 - 7
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.54 - 1.55
SG2.63 - 2.65
TransparencyOpaque. May be translucent when backlit on the edges.
Double Refraction.009
LusterVitreous, waxy
CleavageIndiscernible
Mineral ClassQuartz / Chalcedony

Aquamarine Gemstone

What is aquamarine?

Aquamarine is a member of the beryl family. This stone is known for its blue to blue-green colour. The name comes from the Latin for “sea water”, and aquamarine folklore is usually tied to sailors and the sea. Aquamarine is the birthstone for March and it’s a popular gem that wears well, is readily available, and moderately priced.
Aquamarine is a member of the beryl family and ranges in colour from an almost colourless pale blue to blue-green or teal. The most prize colour is a deep-blue aqua colour. It is 7.5-8 on the Mohs scale of hardness and gets its name from Latin words meaning water and sea.

Occurrence

The most valuable aquamarines come from Brazil, but it is also mined in Kenya and Nigeria, Madagascar, Zambia, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Russia. . Aquamarines on the market today are usually faceted, but when cut as a cabochon, they may display a cat's eye effect known as asterism.
Some gemstones are heated to high temperatures to enhance the colour and/or clarity of a stone. Aquamarines are often heat treated to change a blue-green or teal coloured stone to a pure blue. This results in a permanent colour change.

Aquamarine Healing Properties

Associated with the Throat chakra, Aquamarine helps overcome the fear of speaking, and is an excellent stone for teachers and presenters of all types. It relaxes speakers to a stage of consciousness in which they are fully aware of their own truths, wisdom and feelings, and able to articulate them with clarity and conviction. It also allows one to speak clearly and without anger in difficult situations. 
Aquamarine accelerates the intellectual reasoning processes and enhances the ability for rapid response. It makes one unconquerable through learning, not only about the physical world, but about oneself.  It bestows perseverance, discipline and light heartedness.
Aquamarine encourages the ideal of service to the world and to the development of a humanity attuned to healing. It emits a gentle and compassionate energy, promoting moderation and responsibility for ones' actions. It inspires judgemental people to be more tolerant, and helps those overwhelmed by responsibility to find order. 
A stone of natural justice, Aquamarine utilises compromise and negotiation, and gives quiet courage and clear reasoned words in confrontational situations. Pass Aquamarine over any written complaints you receive or before you send any out, wear or carry Aquamarine when visiting your child's school because of a complaint, or when resolving neighbourhood disputes over parking or boundaries. 
As a travel crystal, greenish blue Aquamarine protects those who journey by sea, alleviating the fear of water, and guards those involved in any long-haul travel such as flying or driving long distances. It is a good stone for learning to swim. 
As a love crystal, pale blue Aquamarine encourages a lover to return, helps two people with different lifestyles to live together in harmony, and reduces the effects of sensitive issues that cause quarrels. Aquamarine is often given as a love token or eternity ring, and increases commitment and fidelity "as long as the waters of the earth flow."

Physical Properties of Aquamarine

Chemical FormulaBe3Al2SiO6
ColourBlue
Hardness7.5 - 8.0
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.57 - 1.58
SG2.6 - 2.8
TransparencyTransparent to translucent
Double Refraction.006
LusterVitreous
Cleavage3,1 - basal
Mineral ClassBeryl (Aquamarine)

Andradite Gemstone

What is Andradite?

Andradite is a species of the garnet group. It was named after the Brazilian mineralogist José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva (1763–1838). Andradite includes three varieties:
  1. Melanite: Black in color, referred to as "titanian andradite".
  2. Demantoid: Vivid green in color, one of the most valuable and rare stones in the gemological world.
  3. Topazolite: Yellow-green in color and sometimes of high enough quality to be cut into a faceted gemstone, it is rarer than demantoid.
It was first described in 1868 for an occurrence in Drammen, Buskerud, Norway.

Occurrence

Melanite
It occurs in skarns developed in contact metamorphosed impure limestones or calcic igneous rocks; in chlorite schists and serpentinites and in alkalic igneous rocks (typically titaniferous). Associated minerals include vesuvianite, chlorite, epidote, spinel, calcite, dolomite and magnetite. It is found in Italy, the Ural Mountains of Russia, Arizona and California and in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast in Ukraine. Like the other garnets, andradite crystallizes in the cubic space group, with unit-cell parameter of 12.051 Å at 100 K. The spin structure of andradite contains two mutually canted equivalent antiferromagnetic sublattices below the Néel temperature.
Demantoid
Topazolite

Andradite Healing Properties

The energies and healing powers of Andradite Garnet reflect the strength and protection of all garnets. Its physical healing power encourages the stimulation and regeneration of blood, the assimilation of vital minerals, and strengthens the immune system.
Emotionally, Andradite Garnet brings strength, stability and balance, promoting self-confidence and self-esteem. It is associated with the Base, Heart and Solar Plexus Chakras, opening up the mind to higher thinking and better relationships, and stimulating creativity, will and focus.
It is a powerful spiritual cleanser. Andradite Garnet ranges in colour energy from green to dark olive, deep yellow, and a glossy black. Melanite, the black variety is an excellent meditation aid with powerful grounding abilities.
A host of angels are associated with Andradite's colour energies and it honors two Goddesses. Garnet is the traditional birthstone of January, and Andradite is the natural birthstones of those born in the in the heart of spring (April 20-May 20) and the beginning of summer (June 21-July 21).
Garnet is the zodiac stone for those born under the sign Aquarius, and is an Enhancer Strengthener crystal. It has the properties of Wood and Water energies, and is a talisman of protection.

Physical Properties of Andradite

Chemical FormulaCa3Fe3+2Si3O12
ColourRed, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Gray, Black, Multicoloured
Hardness6.5 - 7.5
Crystal SystemIsometric
Refractive Index1.888 - 1.889
SG3.8 - 3.9
TransparencyTransparent to opaque
Double RefractionNone
LusterAdamantine, submetallic
CleavageNone
Mineral ClassAndradite (Garnet)

Andesine gemstone

What is Andesine?

Andesine is a silicate mineral, a member of the plagioclase feldspar solid solution series. Its chemical formula is (Ca, Na)(Al, Si)4O8, where Ca/(Ca + Na) (% Anorthite) is between 30%-50%. The plagioclase feldspars are a continuous solid solution series and as such the accurate identification of individual members requires detailed optical study, chemical analysis or density measurements. Refractive indices and specific gravity increase directly with calcium content.
Andesine feldspar is composed of 50-70% albite and 30-50% anorthite. 

Name and discovery

Andesine was first described in 1841 for an occurrence in the Marmato mine, Colombia. It is named after the Andes mountains of South America. The name is for the Andes due to its abundance in the andesite lavas in those mountains. 
Andesine is found in a range of colours, from red, honey-red to orange, yellow, champagne and green. In the early 2000s, red and green gemstones began to be marketed under the name of 'Andesine'. After some controversy, these gemstones were subsequently discovered to have been artificially-coloured.

Occurrence

Andesine occurs in intermediate igneous rocks such as diorite, syenite and andesite. It characteristically occurs in metamorphic rocks of granulite to amphibolite facies commonly exhibiting antiperthite texture. It also occurs as detrital grains in sedimentary rocks. It is commonly associated with quartz, potassium feldspar, biotite, hornblende and magnetite.

Andesine Healing Properties

As a protective stone, wearing andesine jewellery or simply carrying the stone around will prevent the release of necessary energies while also acting to deflect undesirable energy. Use when around particularly negative people or situations. Wearing a labradorite pendant is beneficial for sensitive people.
Like all metaphysical crystals andesine gemstone can impact the mind, thought-patterns, and psychological well-being. This stone acts to connect the intuition with the intellect. What effect does this synergy have? It facilitates creative thought, which is ideal for innovators, therapists, writers, and any work where the combination of concrete thoughts and deeper awareness is appreciated.

Physical Properties of Andesine

Chemical Formula(Na,Ca)Al1-2Si3-2O8
ColourRed, Green, Yellow, Orange, Pink, Multicoloured
Hardness6 - 6.5
Crystal SystemTriclinic
Refractive Index1.560 - 1.568
SG2.69 - 2.70
TransparencyTransparent to translucent
Double Refraction.008
LusterVitreous
Cleavage2,1 - basal ; 2,1 - prismatic ; 3,1 - pinacoidal.
Mineral ClassPlagioclase feldspar (Also see the minerals Andesine and Labradorite))

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Amethyst Gemstone

What is Amethyst?

Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewellery. The name comes from the ancient Greek ἀ a- ("not") and μέθυστοςméthystos ("intoxicated"), a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness. The ancient Greeks wore amethyst and made drinking vessels decorated with it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication. It is one of several forms of quartz. Amethyst is a semiprecious stone and is the traditional birthstone for February.

Amethyst colour

The colour in amethyst from most localities is unevenly distributed in the individual crystals. In amethyst geodes it is often most intense in the growth zones under the rhombohedral faces (at the tips). Occasionally the colour is deeper under either the r or z rhombohedral faces, giving the crystal a pinwheel appearance when viewed from the top. In prismatic crystals the colour may appear in phantom-like thin layers, while in sceptres and skeleton quartz the colour is often concentrated along the edges, and accompanied by smoky zones. Despite the intense colour, the content of iron occupying Si positions in amethyst is rather low, in the 10-100 ppm range.

When heated to more than about 300-400°C, amethyst loses its violet colour and often turns yellow, orange or brown, and then resembles the quartz variety citrine, but depending on the locality and the temperature during the heat treatment it may also turn colourless or rarely green.
Irradiation with UV light will also destroy the colour centres, and accordingly prolonged exposure to sunlight will slowly fade amethyst. The photo to the right shows the effects of heat (bottom left and right) and UV irradiation (top right) on the colour of a specimen from Uruguay.
Amethyst is pleochroic when the polarisation of the light is changed from parallel to the c-axis to perpendicular to the c-axis, amethyst changes its colour from blue-violet to purple. The strength of the effect varies to a considerable degree, and changes in the hue depending on the direction of the transmitted light may be observable with the naked eye, in particular in crystals with a zonar development of colour, which may even show sky-blue tones.

Amethyst Crystals


Amethyst crystals do not get very large, crystals longer than 30 cm are very rare. It is found in various forms and shapes, the most common growth forms are: 
  1. Druzy crystal aggregates that outline cavities; the crystals are usually short-prismatic and often lack prism faces. Most common in volcanic rocks, but also in hydrothermal veins, and even in cavities in sedimentary rocks;
  2. Scepters (late syntaxial overgrowth) on other color varieties of quartz, in particular in high- to medium-temperature environments like alpine-type fissures and pegmatites
  3. Split-growth crystals ("artichoke quartz") in hydrothermal veins in ore deposits, but also in volcanic rocks.
  4. As individual well-formed crystals in small cavities and fissures, in particular in volcanic rocks. 
  5. As hydrothermal vein filling, often with several growth phases with variable color that cause a banding pattern.

Occurrences

Amethyst is produced in abundance from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil where it occurs in large geodes within volcanic rocks. Many of the hollow agates of southwestern Brazil and Uruguay contain a crop of amethyst crystals in the interior. Artigas, Uruguay and neighbouring Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul are large world producers exceeding in quantity Minas Gerais, as well as Mato Grosso, Espirito Santo, Bahia, and Ceará states, all amethyst producers of importance in Brazil.
It is also found and mined in South Korea. The largest opencast amethyst vein in the world is in Maissau, Lower Austria. Much fine amethyst comes from Russia, especially from near Mursinka in the Ekaterinburg district, where it occurs in drusy cavities in granitic rocks. Many localities in south India yield amethyst. One of the largest global amethyst producers is Zambia in southern Africa with an annual production of about 1000 tonnes.
Amethyst occurs at many localities in the United States. Among these may be mentioned: the Mazatzal Mountain region in Gila and Maricopa Counties, Arizona; Red Feather Lakes, near Ft Collins, Colorado; Amethyst Mountain, Texas; Yellowstone National Park; Delaware County, Pennsylvania; Haywood County, North Carolina; Deer Hill and Stow, Maine and in the Lake Superior region of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Amethyst is relatively common in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Nova Scotia. The largest amethyst mine in North America is located in Thunder Bay, Ontario.

Amethyst types

Purple Amethyst

Purple Amethyst has been highly esteemed throughout the ages for its stunning beauty and legendary powers to stimulate, and soothe, the mind and emotions. It is a semi-precious stone in today’s classifications, but to the ancients it was a “Gem of Fire,” a Precious Stone worth, at times in history, as much as a Diamond. It has always been associated with February, the month the Romans dedicated to Neptune, their water-god, and is the traditional birthstone of that month. It is the stone of St. Valentine and faithful love, and signifies ecclesiastical dignity as the Bishop’s Stone. It carries the energy of fire and passion, creativity and spirituality, yet bears the logic of temperance and sobriety.

Brandberg Amethyst

Brandberg Amethyst is a unique and extraordinary blend of Amethyst, Clear and Smoky Quartz together in one exceedingly high-vibrational crystal. It is found only in Namibia, Africa, and is imbued with remarkable phantoms, enhydros, and other rare formations and inclusions. It attunes to pure consciousness and is a potent talisman of healing and perfection with the capacity to restore one back to their etheric blueprint in order to realign with the Divine Source.

Chevron Amethyst

Chevron Amethyst displays v-shaped chevrons of deep purple and white Quartz that “seep” into beautiful layers. It is one of the finest Third-Eye stones for stimulating vision within the self as well as the physical world, filtering the life force from the cosmos via the Crown in its white layers and opening up spiritual and psychic channels through the purple. It has a strong, focused energy for dissipating and repelling negativity, and is the perfect crystal for learning any form of spiritual healing. Hold one in each hand for powerful but safe out-of-body travel, shamanic journeying or pathworking, and between the hands while praying or reciting mantras.

Cacoxenite in Amethyst 

Cacoxenite in Amethyst mingles dark brown to yellow tufts of Cacoxenite, a phosphate mineral and major component in the Super Seven crystal, with the host crystal Amethyst. This combination brings a high level of creativity and new ideas to humanity by fostering thoughts that have never been thought of before. It is a calming stone, good in times of upheaval, and raises spiritual awareness of the creator essence in the beauty of nature and the kindness in people. Carry on the night of the crescent and full moon to transfer healing energy to the Earth and create an ethereal connection between all of the universe.

Rutiliated Amethyst

“Rutilated” Amethyst is a rare form of Amethyst which appears to contain Rutile, but actually contains brownish crystals of Goethite, an iron hydroxide mineral also found in the Super Seven crystal. Goethite is a stone for finding the link between the deep self and Earth, and together with Amethyst clears the Earth and Base Chakras, aligning the whole chakra system to the higher mind. It purifies the emotional body and is particularly helpful in grief work. It facilitates clairaudience, communion with angels, and connections with other worlds. To program as a wishing stone or with intentions, messages, and prayers, simply hold the stone with the intent in mind.

Amethyst Healing Properties

Amethyst is a wonderful talisman for use in the creative arts, especially in darker shades. It assists endeavours where new, original results need to be created using tools and methods of the past. It is often used as the Artist’s Stone, the Composer’s Stone, the Inventor’s, Poet’s and Painter’s Stones. Keep an Amethyst crystal or cluster in the area to focus and amplify the creative elements of the Universal Life Force.
Called the “All-healer,” Amethyst is one of the most effective crystals for healing people, plants and animals. Natural unpolished Amethysts or geodes are particularly helpful placed where plants will not grow or animals refuse to sit. It also counteracts negative earth energies beneath buildings or anywhere that feels hostile. 
Amethyst protects against psychic attack, paranormal harm or ill-wishing, and returns the energy back to the universe after being transformed into positive, loving energy. To increase this power and attract good luck, draw an image of the sun and the crescent moon over an Amethyst in lavender incense smoke. 
Referred to as “nature’s tranquilliser,” Amethyst calms and soothes, assisting the transmission of neural signals through the brain. It relieves obsessive compulsive disorder and hyperactivity in children and animals. Place under the pillow or mattress, or rub the centre of the forehead counter-clockwise to cure insomnia and stimulate pleasant dreams. It is especially effective for children’s recurring nightmares and fears of the dark, and may help alleviate homesickness.
Amethyst is an excellent stone for diplomats, negotiators and business people. It calms angry temperaments and gives a distinct advantage in situations where debating is required. Wear or hold Amethyst to bring in spiritual insights coupled with intellectual reasoning. As a luck and prosperity crystal, Amethyst is good for reducing the tendency to overspend, gambling addictions or unwise investments. 
Amethyst is connected to the Temperance card in the tarot, representing balance. It is a stone dedicated to curbing overindulgence and bad habits, and is an excellent aid to quitting smoking, drinking and drug use, as well as unhealthy physical passion. It also provides the strength needed to obtain freedom from addictive personalities, one’s own or another’s. Placing an Amethyst on the navel is believed to protect a person from intoxication, and in conjunction with other treatments such as counselling, helps cure addictions. A naval piercing makes it possible to always keep an Amethyst in this spot. 
Amethyst is the stone of St. Valentine and of faithful lovers because St. Valentine was thought to have worn an Amethyst ring engraved with the image of Cupid. It is also referred to as the “couple’s stone” and gives meaning to relationships that over time, transcends the carnal union and gives way to deeper connection and a more soulful communion. Wear as an engagement or eternity ring for fidelity, or as a locket to call back lost love.

Physical properties of Amethyst

Chemical FormulaSiO2
ColourPurple
Hardness7
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.54 - 1.55
SG2.63 - 2.65
TransparencyTransparent to translucent
Double Refraction.009
LusterVitreous
CleavageIndiscernible
Mineral ClassQuartz

Amber Gemstone

What is Amber?

Amber is fossilised tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its colour and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects. Amber is used as an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine, and as jewellery.

Composition 

Amber is heterogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance. Amber is a macro-molecule by free radical polymerisation of several precursors in the labdane family, e.g. communic acid, cummunol, and biformene. These labdanes are diterpenes (C20H32) and trienes, equipping the organic skeleton with three alkene groups for polymerisation. As amber matures over the years, more polymerisation takes place as well as isomerization reactions, cross-linking and cyclization.

Formation

Molecular polymerisation, resulting from high pressures and temperatures produced by overlying sediment, transforms the resin first into copal. Sustained heat and pressure drives off terpenes and results in the formation of amber.
For this to happen, the resin must be resistant to decay. Many trees produce resin, but in the majority of cases this deposit is broken down by physical and biological processes. Exposure to sunlight, rain, microorganisms (such as bacteria and fungi), and extreme temperatures tends to disintegrate resin. For resin to survive long enough to become amber, it must be resistant to such forces or be produced under conditions that exclude them.

Distribution and mining

Amber is globally distributed, mainly in rocks of Cretaceous age or younger. Historically, the Samland coast west of Königsberg in Prussia was the world's leading source of amber. First mentions of amber deposits here date back to the 12th century. About 90% of the world's extractable amber is still located in that area, which became the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia in 1946.
Pieces of amber torn from the seafloor are cast up by the waves, and collected by hand, dredging, or diving. Elsewhere, amber is mined, both in open works and underground galleries. Then nodules of blue earth have to be removed and an opaque crust must be cleaned off, which can be done in revolving barrels containing sand and water. Erosion removes this crust from sea-worn amber.
Caribbean amber, especially Dominican blue amber, is mined through bell pitting, which is dangerous due to the risk of tunnel collapse.

Geological record

Transparent Amber.
The oldest amber recovered dates to the Upper Carboniferous period (320 million years ago). Its chemical composition makes it difficult to match the amber to its producers – it is most similar to the resins produced by flowering plants; however, there are no flowering plant fossils until the Cretaceous, and they were not common until the Upper Cretaceous. Amber becomes abundant long after the Carboniferous, in the Early Cretaceous, 150 million years ago, when it is found in association with insects. The oldest amber with arthropod inclusions comes from the Levant, from Lebanon and Jordan. This amber, roughly 125–135 million years old, is considered of high scientific value, providing evidence of some of the oldest sampled ecosystems.
In Lebanon more than 450 outcrops of Lower Cretaceous amber were discovered by Dany Azar a Lebanese paleontologist and entomologist. Among these outcrops 20 have yielded biological inclusions comprising the oldest representatives of several recent families of terrestrial arthropods. Even older, Jurassic amber has been found recently in Lebanon as well. Many remarkable insects and spiders were recently discovered in the amber of Jordan including the oldest zorapterans, clerid beetles, umenocoleid roaches, and achiliid planthoppers.
Baltic amber or succinite (historically documented as Prussian amber) is found as irregular nodules in marine glauconitic sand, known as blue earth, occurring in the Lower Oligocene strata of Sambia in Prussia (in historical sources also referred to as Glaesaria). After 1945 this territory around Königsberg was turned into Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, where amber is now systematically mined.
It appears, however, to have been partly derived from older Eocene deposits and it occurs also as a derivative phase in later formations, such as glacial drift. Relics of an abundant flora occur as inclusions trapped within the amber while the resin was yet fresh, suggesting relations with the flora of Eastern Asia and the southern part of North America. Heinrich Göppert named the common amber-yielding pine of the Baltic forests Pinites succiniter, but as the wood does not seem to differ from that of the existing genus it has been also called Pinus succinifera. It is improbable, however, that the production of amber was limited to a single species; and indeed a large number of conifers belonging to different genera are represented in the amber-flora.
Semitransparent Amber.
Non-transparent (bone and foamy)

Amber Healing Properties

They may aid the emotions, and through their role to assist emotional healing they help to create a more positive outlook on life.
Their role within the sacral chakra means that it this a strong stone to help you to enhance your creativity.
These stones link the everyday self to the spiritual self.
It is known to be one of the better natural crystals to use for protection from psychic attack.
This golden yellow resin is highly protective against any type of negativity, especially from psychic sources.
Amber stone has many wonderful qualities for healing the physical and emotional body. It is worth using as it may also heal health problems you forgot you had until they are gone.

Physical Properties of Amber

Chemical FormulaAmber is composed of complex organic material without any definitive chemical formula. Its inherent substance can also vary depending on its origination.
ColourBlue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown
Hardness2 - 2.5
Crystal SystemAmorphous
Refractive Index1.539 - 1.545
SG1.0 - 1.1
TransparencyTransparent to nearly opaque
LusterResinous
CleavageNone

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Amazonite

What is Amazonite?


Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. The name is taken from that of the Amazon River, from which certain green stones were formerly obtained, but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area.
A green to blue-green variety of K-feldspar, usually microcline, but sometimes applied to orthoclase. The colour is usually caused by an elevated content of Pb (up to 1.2% PbO).
However, there are also indications that the green colour of some microcline is caused by divalent Fe. Overenthusiastic uses of this name include giving this name to slightly gray-green hues in microcline that are often photosensitive and turn from greenish gray to light smoky gray. Sunlight can sometimes enrich the colour of genuine amazonite.

Amazonite properties

Mohs Hardness of 6-6.5 with a triclinic crystal structure. Amazonite or Microcline is a form of alkali feldspar, and it’s colour is due to the presence of lead. Although the main colour of Amazonite is teal it may also be partially colourless, white, yellow, pink, red, gray or green. It’s striking colour is due to the presence of lead and is that mineral that determines the depth of the colour.

Occurrence

Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmensky Mountains, 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk, Russia, where it occurs in granitic rocks. More recently, high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak, Colorado, where it is found associated with smoky quartz, orthoclase, and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park, El Paso County, Colorado. Other locations in the United States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia, Virginia. It is also found in pegmatite in Madagascar and in Brazil.
Because of its bright green colour when polished, amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a cheap gemstone, although it is easily fractured, and loses its gloss due to its softness.
For many years, the source of amazonite's colour was a mystery. Naturally, many people assumed the colour was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colours. More recent studies suggest that the blue-green colour results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar.

Amazonite healing properties

Amazonite assists in communicating one’s true thoughts and feelings without over-emotionalism. It also enables one to see a problem from another’s point of view in order to affect peace, or to see both sides of an issue objectively to resolve one’s own inner conflicts. Sleeping with an Amazonite can bring these components into focus through the symbolism of dreams. 
As a support stone, Amazonite aids in overcoming loneliness, and has been credited with making married life happier.
Amazonite is a Barrier Filter crystal that blocks geopathic stress, absorbs microwaves and cell phone emanations, and protects against electromagnetic pollution. Place it near computers and other electronics, or tape to your cell phone.
In the workplace, Amazonite dispels negative energy and aggravation, and protects against unfair business practices and others taking advantage. A stone of prosperity, Amazonite attracts new customers and orders to a business, and assists one in being in the right place at the right time for new opportunities.
Amazonite is a good luck stone for games of chance, competitions and luck in any financial venture. To make a lucky-charm, combine three Amazonites and a small amount of basil and mint in a small pouch. Leave it in front of a turquoise candle until the candle burns down.
Hide an Amazonite in a child’s or teen’s bedroom to encourage tidiness, and keep a dish of Amazonites on the kitchen table to persuade others to assist more with chores.

Physical Properties of Amazonite

Chemical FormulaKAlSi3O8
ColourBlue, Green, Purple, Gray, Multicolored
Hardness6 - 6.5
Crystal SystemTriclinic
Refractive Index1.52 - 1.53
SG2.56 - 2.58
TransparencyTranslucent to opaque
Double Refraction-.008
LusterVitreous
Cleavage2,1 - basal ; 2,1 - prismatic ; 3,1 - pinacoidal
Mineral ClassMicrocline